Sapphire is one of the four most valuable gems along with emerald, diamond and ruby. It belongs to the same family of minerals that the ruby corundum i.e., the only difference between a naming convention. It is called ruby red corundum and sapphire to all the other colors of corundum, including the pink.
The sapphire, as precious gem, is transparent and blue variety of the mineral corundum while ruby is the red variety, with gem quality, the same material.
Although many times applies the term sapphire for all colors except red, sapphire blue authentic is intense, being the best cornflower blue shade called blue cashmere.
Sapphire different colors are due to small amounts of impurities such as chromium, iron and titanium in the aluminum oxide, the principal component of the mineral.
Range of colors
Sapphires are found naturally in a wide range of colors, from transparent through different shades of red, yellow, blue, and combinations thereof.
The largest producers are in Africa and currently deposits found in South America. Antarctica is rich in this mineral, but because of their delicate ecology, exploitation has been limited.
Use the sapphire is restricted to jewelry and laser applications, and since 1902 can be created artificially, although the most high valued jewelry, as with diamonds, are those who have not suffered any further treatment after extraction, and can be embedded in different jewelry such as rings, earrings, pendants, without being cut, thus achieving high values according to the carats that it contain.